수요일, 9월 12, 2018

Armed conflict and child mortality in Africa: a geospatial analysis


Summary

Background

A substantial portion of child deaths in Africa take place in countries with recent history of armed conflict and political instability. However, the extent to which armed conflict is an important cause of child mortality, especially in Africa, remains unknown. 

Methods

We matched child survival with proximity to armed conflict using information in the Uppsala Conflict Data Program Georeferenced Events Dataset on the location and intensity of armed conflict from 1995 to 2015 together with the location, timing, and survival of infants younger than 1 year (primary outcome) in 35 African countries. We measured the increase in mortality risk for infants exposed to armed conflicts within 50 km in the year of birth and, to study conflicts' extended health risks, up to 250 km away and 10 years before birth. We also examined the effects of conflicts of varying intensity and chronicity (conflicts lasting several years), and effect heterogeneity by residence and sex of the child. We then estimated the number and portion of deaths of infants younger than 1 year related to conflict. 

Findings

We identified 15 441 armed conflict events that led to 968 444 combat-related deaths and matched these data with 1·99 million births and 133 361 infant deaths (infant mortality of 67 deaths per 1000 births) between 1995 and 2015. A child born within 50 km of an armed conflict had a risk of dying before reaching age 1 year of 5·2 per 1000 births higher than being born in the same region during periods without conflict (95% CI 3·7–6·7; a 7·7% increase above baseline). This increased risk of dying ranged from a 3·0% increase for armed conflicts with one to four deaths to a 26·7% increase for armed conflicts with more than 1000 deaths. We find evidence of increased mortality risk from an armed conflict up to 100 km away, and for 8 years after conflicts, with cumulative increase in infant mortality two to four times higher than the contemporaneous increase. In the entire continent, the number of infant deaths related to conflict from 1995 to 2015 was between 3·2 and 3·6 times the number of direct deaths from armed conflicts. 

Interpretation

Armed conflict substantially and persistently increases infant mortality in Africa, with effect sizes on a scale with malnutrition and several times greater than existing estimates of the mortality burden of conflict. The toll of conflict on children, who are presumably not combatants, underscores the indirect toll of conflict on civilian populations, and the importance of developing interventions to address child health in areas of conflict. 

수요일, 7월 04, 2018

Why is nobody reaching for them?


They are human beings, they need help, they are in trouble. Why is nobody reaching for them? 

What is the largest impact Dr. Gupta had on Bangladesh?


What is the largest impact Dr. Gupta had on Bangladesh? To me, Dr. Gupta’s greatest achievement was certainly the introduction of tilapia. Bangladesh is unique in South Asia in that the Bangladesh government understood the introduction of this species and accepted it. Currently, in the neighbors of Bangladesh, this fish is banned because of misconceptions. But Bangladesh understood the science behind it, as Dr. Gupta explained, and was accepting of this fish. This is the fourth most consumed fish in Bangladesh now. 

The right of African people to healthcare cannot be confined to a few antibiotics


If you consider the right to healthcare as a basic human right that belongs to every human being, then why not in Africa? The best way to demonstrate and to show that we are considering African people equal to us is to share with them our medical technology, our medical knowledge, and to demonstrate that we do not discriminate. The right of African people to healthcare cannot be confined to a few antibiotics. 

All those areas will also come under the sea


Just looking at the coconut tree... Before, the grass was here, and all those things... The land was coming here... This part must have been probably up to... This place, we had grass. But now you can see the bottom is there, and the tree is almost about to fall down. This tree has fallen down. So, in another 5~6 years, all these trees will be gone. All these trees will be gone, and probably all those areas will also come under the sea.